אולם בו זמנית הרף שהציב לעצמו אובאמה נמוך כי הוא רואה בנאום צעד ראשון לפתיחת דיאלוג ולא תוכנית פעולה מחייבת. מהבחינה הזו מה שהוא רצה להשיג זה את הקשב של העולם הערבי והמוסלמי ואת הנכונות שלהם להיכנס לדו שיח.
לאובמה היו לא רק מטרות, אלא גם כמה אילוצים. מבחינת הפוליטיקיה הפנימית בארצות הברית הוא צריך להיזהר שלא ללכת רחוק מדי ובכך לפתוח את עצמו לביקורת מהימין האמריקאי על כך שהוא פוגע במעמדה של אמריקה, ושהוא מתחנף לאויביה. מבחינת הפוליטיקה הבינלאומית נאומו של אובמה נבחן ביסודיות בכל רחבי העולם דרך עדשות מקומיות – בדרום אמריקה בוחנים את היכולת שלו להודות במשגים ובאימפריאליזם אמריקאי, בטאיוואן ובגיאורגיה בוחנים את הנאמנות של אובאמה לבעלת בריתו הנצורה ישראל כדי לדעת עד כמה ניתן להישען עליו, באירופה מודדים את המרחק שלו מג’ורג’ בוש, ובאקדמיה בודקים את השליטה שלו בפרטים.
ישנה גם מטרת משנה אישית יותר – אובמה מביא איתו למזרח התיכון מטען סימבולי כבד הנשען על אישיותו וסיפור חייו. זהו מטען רב עוצמה, אבל כזה שקל מאד לבזבז או להפוך למלודרמטי. לכן, לאור המטרות הללו, יש מקום לראות איך אובמה הצליח להתאים את הסגנון והתוכן להקשר.
נאום אובאמה – חלק א’ Obama’s Speech – part I
הסטוריה של אמריקה והאיסלאם History of America & Islam
Violent extremists have exploited these tensions in a small but potent minority of Muslims. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, and the continued efforts of these extremists to engage in violence against civilians has led some in my country to view Islam as as inevitably hostile not only to America and Western countries, but also to human rights. This has bred more fear and mistrust.
So long as our relationship is defined by our differences, we will empower those who sow hatred rather than peace, and who promote conflict rather than the co-operation that can help all of our people achieve justice and prosperity. This cycle of suspicion and discord must end.
הצגת מטרת הנאום – יצירת דיאלוג וכבוד הדדי
I have come here to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world; one based upon mutual interest and mutual respect; and one based upon the truth that America and Islam are not exclusive, and need not be in competition. Instead, they overlap, and share common principles of justice and progress; tolerance and the dignity of all human beings.
I do so recognising that change cannot happen overnight. No single speech can eradicate years of mistrust, nor can I answer in the time that I have all the complex questions that brought us to this point. But I am convinced that in order to move forward, we must say openly the things we hold in our hearts, and that too often are said only behind closed doors. There must be a sustained effort to listen to each other; to learn from each other; to respect one another; and to seek common ground.
As the Holy Quran tells us: “Be conscious of God and speak always the truth.” That is what I will try to do, to speak the truth as best I can, humbled by the task before us, and firm in my belief that the interests we share as human beings are far more powerful than the forces that drive us apart.
הסיפור האישי של אובמה והאיסלאם
Part of this conviction is rooted in my own experience. I am a Christian, but my father came from a Kenyan family that includes generations of Muslims. As a boy, I spent several years in Indonesia and heard the call of the azaan at the break of dawn and the fall of dusk. As a young man, I worked in Chicago communities where many found dignity and peace in their Muslim faith.
תרומת האיסלאם לעולם
As a student of history, I also know civilization’s debt to Islam. It was Islam at places like Al-Azhar University that carried the light of learning through so many centuries, paving the way for Europe’s Renaissance and Enlightenment. It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and tools of navigation; our mastery of pens and printing; our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed.
Islamic culture has given us majestic arches and soaring spires; timeless poetry and cherished music; elegant calligraphy and places of peaceful contemplation. And throughout history, Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality.
יחסי אמריקה והאיסלם
I know, too, that Islam has always been a part of America’s story. The first nation to recognise my country was Morocco. In signing the Treaty of Tripoli in 1796, our second President John Adams wrote: “The United States has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Muslims.”
And since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States. They have fought in our wars, served in government, stood for civil rights, started businesses, taught at our universities, excelled in our sports arenas, won Nobel Prizes, built our tallest building, and lit the Olympic Torch. And when the first Muslim-American was recently elected to Congress, he took the oath to defend our Constitution using the same Holy Quran that one of our Founding Fathers Thomas Jefferson kept in his personal library.
הצורך בשיתוף פעולה משני הצדדים
So I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed. That experience guides my conviction that partnership between America and Islam must be based on what Islam is, not what it isn’t. And I consider it part of my responsibility as president of the United States to fight against negative stereotypes of Islam wherever they appear.
But that same principle must apply to Muslim perceptions of America. Just as Muslims do not fit a crude stereotype, America is not the crude stereotype of a self-interested empire. The United States has been one of the greatest sources of progress that the world has ever known. We were born out of revolution against an empire. We were founded upon the ideal that all are created equal, and we have shed blood and struggled for centuries to give meaning to those words within our borders, and around the world. We are shaped by every culture, drawn from every end of the Earth, and dedicated to a simple concept: Epluribus unum: “Out of many, one.”
הערכים של אמריקה – חופש, והזדמנויות
Much has been made of the fact that an African-American with the name Barack Hussein Obama could be elected president. But my personal story is not so unique. The dream of opportunity for all people has not come true for everyone in America, but its promise exists for all who come to our shores – that includes nearly seven million American Muslims in our country today who enjoy incomes and education that are higher than average.
Moreover, freedom in America is indivisible from the freedom to practice one’s religion. That is why there is a mosque in every state of our union, and over 1,200 mosques within our borders. That is why the US government has gone to court to protect the right of women and girls to wear the hijab, and to punish those who would deny it.
סיכום הפתיחה – איסלאם ואמריקה
So let there be no doubt: Islam is a part of America. And I believe that America holds within her the truth that regardless of race, religion, or station in life, all of us share common aspirations to live in peace and security; to get an education and to work with dignity; to love our families, our communities, and our God. These things we share. This is the hope of all humanity.